A rainy day or rainy day fund is a reserved amount of money to be used in times when regular income is disrupted or decreased in order for typical operations to continue. In the United States, the term is usually used to apply to the funds maintained by most U.S. states to help deal with budget shortfalls in years where revenues do not match expenditures. This is critical to the operations of most states, which do not permit their governments to take on debt, meaning that services would have to be cut in the absence of reserve funds.
New York State ComptrollerThomas DiNapoli recommended in March 2010 that the state require that one half of surpluses be deposited into the rainy day fund. The Massachusetts rainy day fund has been the focus of tussles between the Governor of Massachusetts and the Massachusetts General Court. Some research suggests developing a national rainy day fund for states might improve state credit ratings and reduce capital financing costs for states.
- ^Rueben, Kim. "What are rainy day funds?". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^"DiNapoli wants to alter budget process", Business First of Buffalo and The Albany Business Review, March 9, 2010.
- ^"Gov. Withholds $425 Million in State Spending". WCVB-TV. Retrieved December 7, 2006.
- ^Carroll, Matt (January 7, 2007). "Patrick's reversal of cuts brings joy". The Boston Globe.
- ^"Creating a National State Rainy Day Fund", Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 2003.
Weather is the day-to-day or hour-to-hour change in the atmosphere. Weather includes wind, lightning, storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, rain, hail, snow, and lots more. Energy from the Sun affects the weather. Climate tells us what kinds of weather usually happen in an area at different times of the year. Changes in weather can affect our mood. We wear different clothes and do different things in different weather conditions. We choose different foods in different seasons, like ice cream in the summer, or hot chocolate in the winter.
Weather stations around the world measure different parts of weather. Ways to measure weather are windspeed, winddirection, temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity. People try to use these measurements to make weather forecasts for the future. These people are scientists that are called meteorologists. They use computers to build large mathematical models to follow weather trends.
Bad weather can hurt people and their property. It can also just be a bother. Some examples of bad weather are:
Causes of weather[change | change source]
Weather happens because different parts of the Earth get different amounts of heat from the Sun. This makes different climates. The tropics get the most heat because the Sun shines straight down on them, while the poles get the least heat because the Sun shines on them from a low angle. Warmer air is lighter than cooler air and rises higher in the sky by convection.
The air always has some water mixed with it. This is called humidity. When it cools, the water can change from a gas to a liquid through condensation. Then the water can fall from the sky as rain or snow. After the air rises, it gets colder and goes back towards the ground. Because the air lost its water before, it is dry when it comes back to the ground. Wind is made when two areas of air of different temperatures meet. This is called a warm front or cold front. The hot air is forced to rise over the cold causing condensation which forms rain. The ways that the air moves around the Earth are called atmospheric circulation.
Other websites[change | change source]
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Weather can make the same place look very different at different times. During spring, this town has blue skies and dry ground.
During winter, this town now has snow on the ground, and the sky is overcast (meaning it is completely covered by clouds).